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    发贴心情 [分享]名著欣赏-雨果怒斥火烧圆明园

    名著欣赏-雨果怒斥火烧圆明园

    Victor Hugo Condemning the Burning of the Winter Palace

    Victor Hugo, 1802---1885, was a celebrated French literary giant. After the British and French invaders had burnt the Winter Palace in November, 1861, he wrote a reply to a lieutenant named Bartlette(?), denouncing indignantly the Allied atrocities. An extract of the letter follows.

    “Sir, you ask me what I think of the expedition to China. You must feel that it was praiseworthy, well done. You are very polite, putting a high premium upon my feelings. In your opinion, the expedition, performed under the joint banner of Queen Victoria and Emperor Napoleon, was nothing short of a British-French glory. Therefore, you would like to know to what extent I appreciate this glory.”

    Since you ask, I will answer as follows:

    In a corner of the world there existed a man-made miracle --- the Winter Palace. Art has two sources: one, an ideal, whence has come European art; two, fancy, whence has issued Oriental art. The Winter Palace belongs in the art of fancy. The Winter Palace, indeed, was the crystalisation of all of the art that an almost superman race could have fancied. The Winter Palace was a hugescale prototype of fancy if fancy can have a prototype. If only you can imagine an ineffable architectural structure, like a palace in the moon, a fairyland, that is the Winter Palace. If you can imagine a treasure-island, a pool of human perceptive power, expressed in the concrete form of palaces and temples, that is the Winter Palace. It took two generations of manpower to create the Winter Palace, which subsequently went through improvement and perfection over several centuries. For whom was the Winter Palace built, after all? Eventually, for the people. Because as time passes by, all that the people has made remains in the possession of mankind. Great artists, poets, philosophers --- they all knew about the Winter Palace. Voltaire (Francois Marie Arouet)once talked about it. Many people at different times compared the Winter Palace to the Parthenon, the Pyramids, the Arena, the Notre Dame. If they could not see the Winter Palace with their own eyes, they could dream about it --- as if in the gloaming they saw a breath-taking masterpiece of art as they had never known before --- as if there above the horizon of European civilization was towering the silhouette of Asian civilization.

    Now, the miracle is no more! One day, two pirates broke into it. One of them went plundering; the other set every building and everything in it all abaze! Judging by what they did, we know that the victors could degenerate into robbers. The two of them fell to dividing between themselves the spoils. What meritorious feats they had done! What a heaven-sent bonanza! One stuffed his pockets full to overflowing; the other filled in his trunck chockfull. Then, hand in hand they made off, guffawing gloatingly. This episode reflects the history of the two brigands.

    Standing before the tribunal of history is one brigand named France and the other named Great Britain. Against both I protest. Incidentally, I must thank you for giving me the opportunity to make this accusation. The rulers commit crimes but the ruled do not. The government becomes a robber, but the people will never.

    France has gained a large portion of the spoils. Now, quite naively, she thinks herself the rightful owner of the property, and she is displaying the riches of the Winter Palace! I can only hope that there will come one day when France will disburden herself of the heavy load on her conscience and cleanse herself of the crime by returning to China all the spoils taken from the Winter Palace.

    Sir, such is my eulogy of the expedition to China.

    This English translation is from a Chinese version by Zheng Ruolin taking an excerpt from Hugo's Collection of Writings in Exile, appearing in an October 26, 1983 issue of the Beijing Evening News


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    发贴心情 
    雨 果 怒 斥 火 烧 圆 明 园

    雨果(1802—1885)是法国著名文豪。在英法侵略者纵火焚毁我国圆明园以后,1861年11月,他曾复信给一个名叫巴特勒的上尉,怒斥这桩丑行。下面是他复信的摘要。

    先生,您问我对这次远征中国的看法,您觉得这次远征值得称誉,干得漂亮,而且您很客气,相当重视我的感想。按照您的高见,这次在维多利亚女王和拿破仑皇帝的双重旗帜下对中国的远征,是英法两国的光荣;您想知道我对英法两国的这一胜利究竟赞赏到何等程度。

    既然您想知道我的看法,那么我答复如下:

    在世界的一隅,存在着人类的一大奇迹,这个奇迹就是圆明园。艺术有两种渊源:一为理念——从中产生欧洲艺术;一为幻想——从中产生东方艺术。圆明园属于幻想艺术。一个近乎超人的民族所能幻想到的一切都荟集于圆明园。圆明园是规模巨大的幻想的原型,如果幻想也可能有原型的话。只要想象出一种无法描绘的建筑物,一种如同月宫似的仙境,那就是圆明园。假定有一座集人类想象力之大成的宝岛,以宫殿庙宇的形象出现,那就是圆明园。为了建造圆明园,人们经历了两代人的长期劳动。后来又经过几世纪的营造,究竟是为谁而建的呢?为人民。因为时光的流逝会使一切都属于全人类所有。艺术大师、诗人、哲学家,他们都知道圆明园。伏尔泰亦曾谈到过它。人们一向把希腊的巴特农神庙、埃及的金字塔、罗马的竞技场、巴黎的圣母院和东方的圆明园相提并论。如果不能亲眼目睹圆明园,人们就在梦中看到它。它仿佛在遥远的苍茫暮色中隐约眺见的一件前所未知的惊人杰作,宛如亚洲文明的轮廓崛起在欧洲文明的地平线上一样。

    这一奇迹现已荡然无存。有一天,两个强盗闯进了圆明园。一个强盗大肆掠劫,另一个强盗纵火焚烧。从他们的行为来看,胜利者也可能是强盗。一场对圆明园的空前洗劫开始了,两个征服者平分赃物。真是丰功伟绩,天赐的横财!两个胜利者一个装满了他的口袋,另一个看见了,就塞满了他的箱子。然后,他们手挽着手,哈哈大笑着回到了欧洲。这就是这两个强盗的历史。

    在历史面前,这两个强盗一个叫法国,另一个叫英国。对他们我要提出抗议,并且谢谢您给了我抗议的机会。统治者犯下的罪行同被统治者是不相干的;政府有时会是强盗,可是人民永远不会。

    法兰西帝国从这次胜利中获得了一半赃物,现在它又天真得仿佛自己就是真正的物主似的,将圆明园辉煌的掠夺物拿出来展览。我渴望有朝一日法国能摆脱重负,清洗罪恶,把这些财富归还被劫掠的中国。

    先生,这就是我对远征中国的赞赏。

    ----------------------------------------------
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